miércoles, 20 de marzo de 2013

miércoles, 13 de marzo de 2013

Task 8

Maybe / perhaps

In British English both of these adverbs are still very commonly used and have the same meaning. You use them to say that something is possible or may be true, but you are not certain.

They can be used interchangeably but of the two, maybe is very appropriate for more informal contexts and perhaps is used in more formal situations. Compare the following:

I can't find it anywhere. ~ Perhaps / Maybe you threw it away.
How old is Jane? ~ I don't really know. In her twenties, certainly. Twenty-five, maybe.
There were perhaps as many as fifty badly wounded soldiers in the hospital.
Perhaps I should explain to you how they came to be there.
St Paul's Cathedral is perhaps one of London's most prominent landmarks.
Why don't you join us for the New Year celebrations? ~ Yeah, perhaps / maybe I will.
Maybe you are right! Perhaps it would be best if you didn't invite Johnnie
Note that perhaps is pronounced 'praps'. Note also from the above illustrations that perhaps and maybe can be used to refer to past, present or future events.
May / might

Similarly, we can use the modal auxiliaries may or might to say that there is a chance that something is true or may happen. May and might are used to talk about present or future events. They can normally be used interchangeably, although might may suggest a smaller chance of something happening. Compare the following:
I may go into town tomorrow for the Christmas sales. And James might come with me!
What are you doing over the New Year, Ann? ~ Oh, I may go to Scotland, but there again, I might stay at home.
If you go to bed early tonight, you may / might feel better tomorrow.
If you went to bed early tonight, you might feel better tomorrow.
One of my New Year resolutions is to go to the gym twice a week! ~ And pigs might fly!
Note that 'Pigs might fly' is a fixed expression and always uses might. It means that something will never happen.
In the first conditional example, will perhaps could be substituted.
If you go to bed early tonight, you may / might feel better tomorrow.
In the second conditional example, where might is an alternative for would perhaps, may cannot be substituted.
If you went to bed early tonight, you might feel better tomorrow.

When we talk about mixed conditionals, we are referring to conditional sentences that combine two different types of conditional patterns. These combinations are not all that frequent, but the most common combination is when we have a type 3 conditional in the if-clause (if + past perfect) followed by a type 2 conditional (would + infinitive) in the main clause.

Mixed third / second conditional

With this combination we are contrasting an imagined or real event in the past with the present result of that. Consider these examples:
 If he'd taken the medication as prescribed, he wouldn't still be lying sick in bed.
 If she'd taken reasonable precautions, she wouldn't be pregnant now.
If he hadn't run after the car thief and suffered a heart attack, he'd probably be alive today.
 Note that we can also convey the same idea of past event and present result by using type 3 conditional (if + past perfect, would've + past participle) in both clauses
 If he'd taken the medication as the doctor ordered, he would've recovered by now.
 If she'd taken reasonable precautions, she wouldn't have got herself pregnant.
 If he hadn't run after the car thief and suffered a heart attack, he wouldn't have collapsed and died.
 Note that we use this type of conditional when we regret past action or inaction.

Mixed second / third conditional

The other possibility, though I think this is less common, is when we have a type 2 conditional in the if-clause (if + past simple) followed by a type 3 conditional (would've + past participle) in the main clause.
 With this combination, we are describing ongoing circumstances in relation to a previous past event. Consider these examples:
 If you weren't such a poor dancer, you would've got a job in the chorus line in that musical.
If you weren't so blind to his faults, you would've realised that he was out to swindle you.
 He's old enough to come home by himself, but can you just see him across the busy road?

First conditional

 if + present simple, will + infinitive:
 If I wait for Jane, I'll be late for school

This is the pattern that we most frequently associate with the first conditional, referring to future possibility or probability. But note that other patterns are also possible: we can have a modal verb, typically can, may or should, in the if-clause or main clause, as well as going to future or present continuous future. Present perfect is also possible in the if-clause. Consider these examples:

If you can't understand the instructions, you'll never be able to assemble the wardrobe.
 If I give you ten pounds, could you get me some wine at the supermarket?
 If you've finished the work I gave you, you may go home now.
 If the weather's good on Sunday, we're going to have a picnic in Hyde Park.
If you're going to write him a cheque, make sure there's enough money in your account to cover it.
 If you're coming clubbing with us tonight, you'd better get ready now.
 In this final example, note that had better is not a past tense. It refers to the immediate future and we use it to give strong advice as the preferred alternative to must, ought to or should.

if you should… / if you happen to…
 Note that we use should in the if-clause in the first conditional if we want to suggest that something is very unlikely. We can use happen to in a similar way or even combine them:
If you should / happen to change your mind about coming to the beach tomorrow, give me a ring.
 I don't expect him to, but if he should happen to show up, whatever you do, don't let him in!

Task 7

1.- Tobacco is the leading cause of lung disease.
2.- Smoking is also linked to heart disease, stroke and many kinds of cancer.
3.- So-called light or low-tar cigarettes are no safer.
4.- Smokeless tobacco and cigars also have been linked to cancer.
5.- The World Health Organization estimates that almost five-million people a year die from the effects of smoking.
6.- At current rates of growth, the WHO says tobacco use will kill more than eight-million people a year by 2020.
7.- Studies have found that nicotine can be as powerful as alcohol or cocaine.
8.- Nicotine is a poison.
9.- But it also is the major substance in cigarettes that gives pleasure to smokers.
10.- The body grows to depend on nicotine.
11.- When a former smoker smokes a cigarette, the nicotine reaction may start again, forcing the person to keep smoking.
12.- So experts say it is better not to start smoking and become dependent on nicotine than it is to smoke with the idea of stopping later.